Pythagoreans continued to espouse this view for many centuries, and classical passages in the works of writers such as Ovid 43 bce—17 ce and Porphyry — opposing bloodshed and animal slaughter can be traced to Pythagoras.
Sometimes inequality can only be ended by depriving those who are better off of their resources, rendering them as poorly off as everyone else. In this respect he differed from the Sophists, with their ethical relativism, for he thought that virtue is something that can be known and that the virtuous person is the one who knows what virtue is.
But would it be morally good if, in a group consisting of both blind and seeing persons, those with sight were rendered blind because the blind could not be offered sight? Secondly, even if — for the sake of argument — the question is left open of whether demands for distribution according to objective needs e.
Even though these are common classifications in the literature, it is important to keep in mind they necessarily involve over-simplification, particularly with respect to the criticisms of each of the groups of principles.
In reply, it is pointed out that the utilitarian must supply an account of why racist or sexist preferences should be discouraged if the same level of total long term utility could be achieved by encouraging the less powerful to be content with a lower position.
How could it be otherwise? But entitlements and just deserts are not conceptually the same and regularly come apart. These rights and duties have to be grounded in general laws applying to everyone. Above all it serves to remind us of our common humanity, despite various differences cf. Since we find ourselves operating, in practice, in circumstances far beneath such a high sufficiency level, we of course live in moderate scarcity.
Abelard maintained, for example, that the sin of sexual wrongdoing consists not in the act of illicit sexual intercourse, nor even in the desire for it, but in mentally consenting to that desire.
All citizens have the same claim to participation in forming public opinion, and in the distribution, control, and exercise of political power.
His conception of practical wisdom is significant, for it involves more than merely choosing the best means to whatever ends or goals one may have. Mill also acknowledges that "many who are capable of the higher pleasures, occasionally, under the influence of temptation, postpone them to the lower.
This is the view taken by Peter Singer, who says: Such allegations began to emerge in Mill's lifetime, shortly after the publication of Utilitarianism, and persisted for well over a century, though the tide has been turning in recent discussions.
There is another source of diversity as well: Relatedly, utilitarians often emphasize the long run perspective required by their theory.
To recognize these differences should however not lead to an essentialism grounded in sexual or cultural characteristics.
If circumstances can be rightly judged to be unjust, all persons have the responsibility and moral duty, both individually and collectively, to change the pertinent circumstances or distributive schemes into just ones.
Virtue, according to the utilitarian doctrine, is not naturally and originally part of the end, but it is capable of becoming so; and in those who love it disinterestedly it has become so, and is desired and cherished, not as a means to happiness, but as a part of their happiness.
Moreover, Nozick extends the operation of the proviso to apply both to acquisitions and transfers, compounding the problem Nozick,p. Moreover, the task of defining feasible pathways for modifying the structure of liberal democracies without undermining their virtues and protections has proved more difficult than setting out the criticisms of liberalism.
Because the luck egalitarian proposals have a similar motivation to the Difference Principle the moral criticisms of them tend to be variations on those leveled against the Difference Principle. What, however, is the potentiality of human beings?
Robert Nozick advanced this version of libertarianism Nozickand is its best known contemporary advocate. In the more legalistic Judeo-Christian view, however, falling short of what the moral law requires was a much more serious matter than, say, failing to do the household budgets correctly.
This view is obviously derived from the way in which Socrates pressed his opponents to go beyond merely describing particular acts that are for example good, temperate, or just and to give instead a general account of goodness, temperance, or justice.
It indicates that equal output is demanded with equal input. This is now the widely held conception of substantive, universal, moral equality. An additional serious problem with any welfare-centered concept of equality is that it cannot take account of either desert Feinberg or personal responsibility for one's own well-being, to the extent this is possible and reasonable.
As indicated, there is also a third, more suitable approach to the equality ideal: And this, of course, conflicts with our everyday understanding of equal treatment. Because there has been such extensive discussion of the Difference Principle in the last 40 years, there have been numerous criticisms of it from the perspectives of all the other theories of distributive justice outlined here.
The reasons speaking for the exclusion of features like skin color, height, sex and parentage as discriminatory apply equally to other natural human qualities like intellegence, appearance, physical strength, and so forth that are often chosen as criteria for distribution.
Justice is hence primarily related to individual actions. Equality is thus merely a byproduct of the general fulfillment of actually non-comparative standards of justice:Free, non-profit, critically annotated aid to philosophical studies of warfare.
Home › Literary Criticism › Moral and Political Philosophy of John Rawls. Moral and Political Philosophy of John Rawls By Nasrullah Mambrol on June 5, • (0) John Rawls () was an American philosopher, whose defence of liberalism was responsible for the revitalisation of English-language political philosophy from the late.
Moral Community Essay Examples. 7 total results. An Introduction to the Comparison of Plato and John Rawls. 1, words. 4 pages. An Introduction to the Analysis of Moral Community in the Literature by Plato and John Rawls.
4 pages. Arguments For and Against Capital Punishment. Prepared originally under the title "The Role of Philosophy Programs in Higher Education” by the American Philosophical Association’s committee on the status and future of the profession.
Virtually all of them give central place to John Rawls' work. And even in the sense that people who don't like his work all, one way or another, it's a point of reference.
This article is concerned with social and political equality. In its prescriptive usage, ‘equality’ is a loaded and ‘highly contested’ concept.Download